Faunal dating site
Two specimens, Vi-207 and Vi-208, were originally directly AMS dated in the late 1990s at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). If the dates are even approximately correct, however, it makes them the most recent known Neanderthals.Vi-207 is a right posterior mandible and Vi-208 is a parietal fragment, both showing Neanderthal-specific morphology (11, 12). This would imply a more extensive temporal overlap between Neanderthals and early modern humans in central Europe than has recently been documented (4).The bone was analyzed using ancient DNA techniques to enable a formal species identification.) High-resolution photographs of the Vi-*28 Neanderthal bone found using Zoo MS.
As previously published, Vi-33.19 has the same mitochondrial sequence as Vi-33.16 (22).All dates obtained on the four Neanderthal specimens at the ORAU are reported in Table 2.We also list the dates obtained on two other hominin samples: Vi-75-G3/h-203, analyzed at the Uppsala Radiocarbon Laboratory (Sweden) (23), and Vi-2291-18 (level G, sublayer unknown), prepared at the Max Planck Institute, Leipzig, and dated at the ORAU (24).The picture was taken after the bone had undergone sampling for Zoo MS and before sampling for a DNA, radiocarbon, and stable isotope analysis.() High-resolution photographs of the Vi-*28 Neanderthal bone found using Zoo MS.
The initial radiocarbon results were 29,080 ± 400 B. In addition to the Neanderthal remains, level G has yielded a small archaeological assemblage that contains techno-typologically Middle and Upper Paleolithic lithic artifacts plus several distinctively early Upper Paleolithic osseous points (12).